A blockchain is a growing list of records, called blocks, that are linked together using cryptography.[1][2][3][4] Each block contains a cryptographic hash of the previous block, a timestamp, and transaction data (generally represented as a Merkle tree). The timestamp proves that the transaction data existed when the block was published in order to get into its hash. Blocks contain the hash of the previous block, forming a chain, with each additional block reinforcing the ones before it. Therefore, blockchains are resistant to modification of their data because once recorded, the data in any given block cannot be altered retroactively without altering all subsequent blocks. Continue reading “Blockchain”

Euro short-term rate (€STR) (Ofer Abarbanel online library)

Euro short-term rate (€STR) is a reference rate for the currency euro. The €STR is calculated by the European Central Bank (ECB) and is based on the money market statistical reporting of the Eurosystem. The working group on euro risk-free rates has recommended €STR as a replacement for the EMMI Euro Overnight Index Average (EONIA) as the Euro risk-free rate for all products and contracts. Continue reading “Euro short-term rate (€STR) (Ofer Abarbanel online library)”

Banking software (Ofer Abarbanel online library)

Banking software is enterprise software that is used by the banking industry to provide and manage the financial products they provide. Within retail banks, banking software typically refers to core banking software and all its interfaces that allows them to connect to other modular software and to the interbank networks. Within investment banking, banking software typically refer to the trading software used to access capital markets. Continue reading “Banking software (Ofer Abarbanel online library)”