Active policy management

Active policy management is business-oriented enterprise software that provides an approach for efficiently and effectively addressing the many risks inherent in electronic communication. With the exponential growth in the use of electronic communication, many businesses are exposed to significant risks every day. These risks range from non-compliance with various regulations, to the leakage of intellectual property, and to inappropriate or offensive employee behavior. Active Policy Management enables a business to accurately detect the violations, to take the appropriate action (even blocking the message from being sent), and to quickly find and review the violation in order to address the situation, preventing further damage. Continue reading “Active policy management”

Philosophy and economics

Philosophy and economics, also philosophy of economics, studies topics such as rational choice, the appraisal of economic outcomes, institutions and processes, and the ontology of economic phenomena and the possibilities of acquiring knowledge of them.

It is useful to divide philosophy of economics in this way into three subject matters which can be regarded respectively as branches of action theory, ethics (or normative social and political philosophy), and philosophy of science. Economic theories of rationality, welfare, and social choice defend substantive philosophical theses often informed by relevant philosophical literature and of evident interest to those interested in action theory, philosophical psychology, and social and political philosophy.

Economics is of special interest to those interested in epistemology and philosophy of science both because of its detailed peculiarities and because it has many of the overt features of the natural sciences, while its object consists of social phenomena.[1] Continue reading “Philosophy and economics”

Socialist-Oriented Market Economy

The socialist-oriented market economy is the official title given to the current economic system in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. It is described as a multi-sectoral market economy where the state sector plays the decisive role in directing economic development, with the eventual long-term goal of developing socialism.[1]

The socialist-oriented market economy is a product of the Đổi Mới economic reforms which led to the replacement of the centrally planned economy with a market-based mixed economy based on the predominance of state-owned industry. These reforms were undertaken to allow Vietnam to integrate with the global market economy. The term “socialist-oriented” is used to highlight the fact that Vietnam has not yet achieved socialism and is in the process of building the basis for a future socialist system.[2] The economic model is similar to the socialist market economy employed in the People’s Republic of China. Continue reading “Socialist-Oriented Market Economy”

2019–20 Coronavirus Outbreak

The 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak is an ongoing epidemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus.[5] It was first identified in December 2019 in Wuhan, China.[6][7][8] As of 28 February 2020, more than 83,000 cases have been confirmed in over 50 countries, of which 8,000 were classified as serious.[4] At least 2,800 deaths have been attributed to the disease,[4] surpassing that of the 2003 SARS outbreak.[9] More than 36,000 people have since recovered.[4]

The virus primarily passes from one person to others via respiratory droplets produced from the airways, often during coughing or sneezing.[10][11] The time between exposure and symptom onset is typically between two and fourteen days.[12] Symptoms may include fever, cough, and breathing difficulties.[13] Complications may include pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment (although research is ongoing); efforts often aim at managing symptoms and supportive therapy.[14] Hand washing, maintaining distance from people who are coughing, and avoiding touching one’s face are recommended to prevent the disease.[15] Anyone who is suspected of carrying the virus is advised to monitor their health for two weeks, self-isolate, wear a surgical mask, and seek medical advice by calling a doctor before visiting a clinic.[12][10] Continue reading “2019–20 Coronavirus Outbreak”

Coronavirus disease 2019

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2,[8] a virus closely related to the SARS virus.[9][10][11] The disease is the cause of the 2019–20 coronavirus outbreak.[12][13] It is primarily spread between people by small droplets from infected individuals when they cough.[14][15] Time from exposure to onset of symptoms is generally between 2 and 14 days.[16][17] Hand washing, maintaining distance from people who are coughing, and not touching one’s face are recommended to prevent the disease.[18] It is recommended to cover one’s nose and mouth with a bent elbow when coughing.[18]

People may have few symptoms or develop fever, cough, and shortness of breath.[7][19][20] Cases can progress to pneumonia and multi-organ failure.[12][13] There is no vaccine or specific antiviral treatment, with management involving treatment of symptoms, supportive care, and experimental measures.[21] The case fatality rate is estimated at between 1% and 3%.[22][23] Continue reading “Coronavirus disease 2019”


Coronaviruses are a group of viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory tract infections that are typically mild, such as the common cold, though rarer forms such as SARS, MERS and COVID-19 can be lethal. Symptoms vary in other species: in chickens, they cause an upper respiratory tract disease, while in cows and pigs they cause diarrhea. There are no vaccines or antiviral drugs to prevent or treat human coronavirus infections. Continue reading “Coronavirus”

Impact of risk management strategies

Impact of risk management strategies on the credit risk faced by commercial banks of Balochistan


This study aims to identify risk management strategies undertaken by the commercial banks of Balochistan, Pakistan, to mitigate or eliminate credit risk. The findings of the study are significant as commercial banks will understand the effectiveness of various risk management strategies and may apply them for minimizing credit risk. This explanatory study analyses the opinions of the employees of selected commercial banks about which strategies are useful for mitigating credit risk. Quantitative data was collected from 250 employees of commercial banks to perform multiple regression analyses, which were used for the analysis. The results identified four areas of impact on credit risk management (CRM): corporate governance exerts the greatest impact, followed by diversification, which plays a significant role, hedging and, finally, the bank’s Capital Adequacy Ratio. This study highlights these four risk management strategies, which are critical for commercial banks to resolve their credit risk.
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High-yield debt (Ofer Abarbanel Online Library)

A high-yield bond (non-investment-grade bond, speculative-grade bond, or junk bond) is a term in finance for a bond that is rated below investment grade. These bonds have a higher risk of default or other adverse credit events, but typically pay higher yields than better quality bonds in order to make them attractive to investors.

The holder of any debt is subject to interest rate risk and credit risk, inflationary risk, currency risk, duration risk, convexity risk, repayment of principal risk, streaming income risk, liquidity risk, default risk, maturity risk, reinvestment risk, market risk, political risk, and taxation adjustment risk. Interest rate risk refers to the risk of the market value of a bond changing due to changes in the structure or level of interest rates or credit spreads or risk premiums. The credit risk of a high-yield bond refers to the probability and probable loss upon a credit event (i.e., the obligor defaults on scheduled payments or files for bankruptcy, or the bond is restructured), or a credit quality change is issued by a rating agency including Fitch, Moody’s, or Standard & Poors.

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Cost of Capital (Ofer Abarbanel Online Library)

In Economics and Accounting, the cost of capital is the cost of a company’s funds (both debt and equity), or, from an investor’s point of view “the required rate of return on a portfolio company’s existing securities”.[1] It is used to evaluate new projects of a company. It is the minimum return that investors expect for providing capital to the company, thus setting a benchmark that a new project has to meet.

Basic concept
For an investment to be worthwhile, the expected return on capital has to be higher than the cost of capital. Given a number of competing investment opportunities, investors are expected to put their capital to work in order to maximize the return. In other words, the cost of capital is the rate of return that capital could be expected to earn in the best alternative investment of equivalent risk; this is the opportunity cost of capital.

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Certificate of deposit (Ofer Abarbanel Online Library)

A certificate of deposit (CD) is a time deposit, a financial product commonly sold by banks, thrift institutions, and credit unions.  CDs are similar to savings accounts in that they are insured “money in the bank” and thus virtually risk free.  In the USA, CDs are insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) for banks and by the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) for credit unions. They differ from savings accounts in that the CD has a specific, fixed term (often one, three, or six months, or one to five years) and usually, a fixed interest rate. The bank intends that the customer hold the CD until maturity, at which time they can withdraw the money and accrued interest.

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