Measuring attractiveness by a categorical-based evaluation technique (MACBETH) (Ofer Abarbanel online library)

Measuring attractiveness through a categorical-based evaluation technique[1][2][3] is the goal of the MACBETH approach that was designed by Carlos António Bana e Costa, from the University of Lisbon, in cooperation with Professor Jean-Claude Vansnick and Dr. Jean-Marie De Corte, from the Université de Mons.

MACBETH permits the evaluation of options against multiple criteria. The key distinction between MACBETH and other multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) methods is that it needs only qualitative judgements about the difference of attractiveness between two elements at a time, in order to generate numerical scores for the options in each criterion and to weight the criteria. The seven MACBETH semantic categories are: no, very weak, weak, moderate, strong, very strong, and extreme difference of attractiveness.

Uses and applications

MACBETH has been extensively applied in various evaluation contexts, namely:[2]

Agriculture, manufacturing, and services

  • Finance[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17]
  • Information systems[18][19][20]
  • Performance measurement[21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42]
  • Production & service planning[43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55][56]
  • Quality management[57][58][59][60][61]
  • R&D project selection[62]
  • Risk management[63][64][65]
  • Strategy & resource allocation[66][67]
  • Supply chain and logistics[68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76]


  • Project prioritization and selection[77][78]
  • Technology choice[79][80][81][82][83][84][85][86][87]


  • Landscape management[88][89]
  • Climate change[90][91]
  • Risk management[58][92][93][94][95][96]
  • Sustainable development[97][98]
  • Water resource management[99][100][101]


  • Medical[102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113]


  • Military[114][115][116][117]

Public sector

  • Conflict analysis and management[118][119][120][121][122][123]
  • Project prioritization & resource allocation[124][125]
  • Procurement[126][127][128][129][130][131][132][133]
  • Project prioritization & resource allocation[46][134][135][113][136][137][138][139][140][141][142][143][144][145]
  • Strategic planning & development[46][146][147][148][149][150][151]


  • Human resource management[152][153][154][155][156][157][158][159][160][161][162]
  • Job selection[3]
  • Sports[163]

Decision support systems

Several decision support systems (DSS) implement the MACBETH approach, namely:

  • Decision-making software
  • M-MACBETH,[164]
  • mini-MACBETH (within HIVIEW3)

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